Combining prayers (jama’) whilst not travelling

Di Kibar kemaren, Mas Cipto, bertanya tentang boleh tidaknya menjamak sholat ketika tidak dalam keadaan shafar. Karena waktu habis, jadi saya tidak sempat berbagi jawaban. Kebetulan beberapa waktu yg lalu, teman Jerman saya bertanya ttg hal ini. Berikut jawabannya. Berhubung lagi males nulis lagi, jadi saya copas saja dari email yg saya kirim ke beliau.

Subject: Combining Prayers

I saw your fb status regarding combining prayers. I want to share what I know and what I’ve been doing.

When I was at school, I used to go to a lesson, where we’re reading/exploring Fathul Bari (sharah/explanation of Sahih Bukhari) and Nailul Authar (sharah of Sahih Muslim). I remembered one of the sessions, we came to a section discussing about combining prayers. The conclusion is: it’s permissible to combine prayers while not traveling for whatever reason without restrictions, but not taking it as a habit.

One of my friend asked the teacher, “Does it mean we can combine Maghrib and Isha when attending the wedding reception?” (in Indonesia the evening reception usually starts at 7pm shortly after maghrib). He replied, “That’s an obvious reason! The hadith said, you can do it even without any reason (as long as you don’t make it as a habit).”

I remember that the hadith was involving Ibn Abbas. I searched on google and found them, and here are the extracts:

i)

وحدثنا أبو بكر بن أبي شيبة وأبو كريب. قالا: حدثنا أبو معاوية. ح وحدثنا أبو كريب وأبو سعيد الأشج (واللفظ لأبي كريب) قالا: حدثنا وكيع. كلاهما عن الأعمش، عن حبيب بن أبي ثابت، عن سعيد بن جبير، عن ابن عباس؛ قال:

جمع رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم بين الظهر والعصر، والمغرب والعشاء، بالمدينة. في غير خوف ولا مطر.

(في حديث وكيع) قال قلت لابن عباس: لم فعل ذلك؟ قال: كي لا يحرج أمته.

وفي حديث أبي معاوية، قيل لابن عباس: ما أراد إلى ذلك؟ قال: أراد أن لا يحرج أمته.

Ibn ‘Abbas reported that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) combined the noon prayer with the afternoon prayer and the sunset prayer with the ‘Isha’ prayer in Medina without being in a state of danger or rainfall. And in the hadith transmitted by Waki’ (the words are): “I said to Ibn ‘Abbas: What prompted him to do that? He said: So that his (Prophet’s) Ummah should not be put to (unnecessary) hardship.” And in the hadith transmitted by Mu’awiya (the words are): “It was said to Ibn ‘Abbas: What did he intend thereby? He said he wanted that his Ummah should not be put to unnecessary hardship.” (Sahih Muslim, No. 705 / 54)

ii)

وحدثني أبو الربيع الزهراني. حدثنا حماد عن الزبير بن الخريت، عن عبدالله بن شقيق، قال:

خطبنا ابن عباس يوما بعد العصر حتى غربت الشمس وبدت النجوم. وجعل الناس يقولون: الصلاة. الصلاة. قال فجاءه رجل من بني تميم، لا يفتر ولا ينثني: الصلاة. الصلاة. فقال ابن عباس: أتعلمني بالسنة؟ لا أم لك! ثم قال: رأيت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم جمع بين الظهر والعصر، والمغرب والعشاء.

قال عبدالله بن شقيق: فحاك في صدري من ذلك شيء. فأتيت أبا هريرة، فسألته، فصدق مقالته.

‘Abdullah b. Shaqiq reported: Ibn ‘Abbas one day addressed us in the afternoon (after the afternoon prayer) till the sun disappeared and the stars appeared, and the people began to say: Prayer, prayer. A person from Banu Tamim came there. He neither slackened nor turned away, but (continued crying): Prayer, prayer. Ibn ‘Abbas said: May you be deprived of your mother, do you teach me Sunnah? And then he said: I saw the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) combining the noon and afternoon prayers and the sunset and ‘Isha’ prayers. ‘Abdullah b. Shaqiq said: Some doubt was created in my mind about it. So I came to Abu Huraira and asked him (about it) and he testified his assertion. (Sahih Muslim, No. 705 / 57)

Imam Ibn Sireen was reported as saying that he did not see any objection to doing so, as long as there is a need for it, unless people turn it into a habit. Likewise, Ibn Shibrima held the same opinion. In his Fath Al-Bari, Ibn Hajar said that many Imams — including Ibn Sireen, Rabi`a, Ash-hab, Ibn Al-Mundhir and Al-Qaffal Al-Qabir — held the opinion that the tradition in question may be applied literally; hence they saw it permissible for any Muslim to combine prayers while not traveling for whatever genuine need without restrictions, but on the condition of not taking it as a habit in itself.

References:

The above two hadiths you can find them in

–         Sahih Muslim (attached) under no. 705 (54) and (57)

–         or in its English Translation in “Book 4: Prayer, Hadith No.1520 and 1523”. You can read it online:

http://www.hadithcollection.com/sahihmuslim.html. Simply enter the hadith number.

So I combine prayers in some occasions, like when I’m working for night shift in the hotel (6pm-2am) or when playing football, badminton (8-10pm), or lectures, seminar, or when I’m sick, etc. or even when I just go to city centre for shopping and think that I may come home late. Especially in winter time, I find combining prayers is unavoidable. This shows how Islam is easy, simple and practicable. Nothing makes us difficult.

Hope this will help.

Wassalam,

Maulana

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